HOLYWELL, OXFORD

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Mansfield Road (was 22–23 Holywell Street/Park Place)


21-23 Mansfield Road

Nos. 22 and 23 Holywell Street were a pair of attached houses that used to stand between Brazier's Yard to the west and Park Place to the east (the latter not to be confused with Park Passage, which also ran off the north side of Holywell Street).

Park Place was known as Pinfold’s Yard in 1841, and presumably belonging to John Pinfold, the butcher at No. 19. Pinfold was still farming in Holywell as late as 1840.

These two houses were demolished in the early 1890s to make way for wide new thoroughfare, Mansfield Road, linking Holywell Street to the present South Parks Road.

Other casualties were the houses on the west side of Park Place itself, and those set back-to-back with them in Brazier’s Yard (accessed by a narrow passage between Nos. 23 and 24). The site of Park Place and Brazier's Yard were also sacrificed to the new wide road. In addition Love Lane to the north, which was only eight feet wide, was widened as the road continued up to the present South Parks Road.

Mansfield Road was built by 1898 and was named after Mansfield College (built from 1886) and now at its north west end. To the south it also gave better access to Manchester College (now Harris Manchester College, built on vacant land behind 24 and 28 Holywell Street in 1891–3). Both these permanent private halls are now full colleges of the University of Oxford.

The 1876 OS map (below), with the present No. 20 in the bottom right corner, shows the area that was later obliterated by Mansfield Road.

Site of Mansfield Road in 1876

Jackson’s Oxford Journal of 11 October 1890 reported:

The College [Manchester, then based in the High Street] has purchased from Merton College land between Holywell-street and the field road known as Love-lane, but which is presently to be laid out as a wide street. The projected Mansfield-road from Holywell-street past the Mansfield College Estate gives frontage to the new buildings.

On 14 October 1893 Jackson's Oxford Journal reported :

The southern end of Mansfield-road has been made, thus completing the new thoroughfare from South Parks-road to Holywell-street. The first portion of Savile-road, on the line of the old footpath known as Love-lane, from Mansfield-road towards Wadham Gardens has been made.

The development of Savile Road and the demolition of Park Place (now part of Mansfield Road) were opposed by the ratepayers of Holywell, who denied that Savile Road was needed. At a Vestry meeting on 26 January 1894 the following “memorial” was drawn up for presentation to the city council:

We, the ratepayers of the Parish of Holywell in Vestry … beg leave to submit as follows…. That the said footpath (Love Lane) affords a short and convenient means of access to Church Street [i.e. St Cross Road] and Long Wall Street, from the north end of the Parish…. That the proposed new carriage road is not really needed for public purposes … the improvement would be dearly purchased if it entailed the removal from the Parish of several of its poorer families…. We believe that the unconditional assent of the Council to the closing of Park Passage [i.e. Park Place] would favour the further demolition of buildings and the removal of their occupants to distant parts of Oxford…. We therefore respectfully urge that the assent of the Council should be given conditionally as follows:— … The closing of Park Passage (if at all) to take place subject to a provision for the erection at or near that spot of dwellings suitable to the means of working class tenants….

The modified scheme was approved by the council on 7 March 1894, and Jackson’s Oxford Journal reported:

As to the improvement itself no-one, we think, can entertain any doubt; it will substitute a wide well planted and handsome road in the place of Love Lane, which is only eight feet wide, unlighted and bordered by a hideous wire palisade….

Mansfield College in 1905
Mansfield College, after which the road was named, with annotation made in 1906

No. 22
1841

The 1841 census for Holywell does not give house numbers, but it is possible to deduce where people listed that year lived by examining directory entries between 1839 and 1842 and later censuses

William Pratley (40), a groom (college servant), lived here with Mary (35) and William (4), Elizabeth (5), Mary (2), and Catherine (2 months). The family had two lodgers.

1851

The house is described as “Holywell Street No. 22 or Park Place No. 1, suggesting that its entrance was at the side. It was occupied by Elizabeth Molyneau (40), the wife of John Molyneaux, porter at Brasenose College, and their children John (19), Arthur (16), Elizabeth (14), William (12), Matthew (10), Mary Ann (6), and Louisa (4).

1861

John Molineux (58), a college servant, lived here with his wife Elizabeth (5) and his children William (21) and Matthew (20), who were both hosier’s assistants, and his daughters Mary (16) and Louisa (14), who were respectively a dressmaker and a scholar.

1871

[The house normally numbered 21A is recorded as 22 Holywell Street in this census]

1881

William Price (65), a boot closer, lived here with his wife Eliza (49) and his daughter Eliza (19). They had four lodgers: a dressmaker, a college bedmaker, a college butler’s assistant, and a cordwainer.

1891

Charles Stapleton (57), a bootmaker, lived here with his wife Ann (53) and their children Kate (20), Albert (15), who was a bootmaker's apprentice, and Eva (12). Lodging in one room in the house were John Rogers (41), a gardener, George Roberts (21), a plumber, and Arthur Payne (17), a groom.

No. 22 Holywell Street was demolished soon after the 1891 census to make way for Mansfield Road


Park Place
1841 (then known as Pinfold’s Yard)

Mary Baker (65), a laundress, lived here with George (25), who was a carver & gilder; Elizabeth (25), who was a laundress; and Mary Ann (2).

Henry Osborne (30), a painter, lived here with his wife Sarah (25) and daughter Sarah (3). A shoemaker lodged with them.

Sarah Poole (65), a laundress, lived here with Eliza Poole (16) and one female servant.

Elizabeth Molyneaux (30), who is described as a college servant (but this may refer to her absent husband, John, who was a servant at Brasenose College) lived here with John (9), Arthur (7), Elizabeth (4), William (2), and Matthew (4 months). A lodger and a 13-year-old servant girl lived with them.

Ann Hutton (40) lived here with a 13-year-ld servant girl

Thomas Hanneford Guilder or Gilder (60), a carpenter, lived here with Richard (25), who was a printer; Edwin (20), who was a joiner; Margaret (20), who was a dressmaker; and Thirsa (15).

Thomas Kinch (40), an agricultural labourer, lived here with Susannah (40), Jane (8), Edward (3), and Ellen (6 months).

George George (20), a male servant, appears to be listed in the same house as the Kinches. He lived here with Ann (20), and a second family: Sarah Hedges (50) with Rachael (20), John (15), Thomas (13), and Rosetta (11).

1851

1 Park Place: See No. 22 Holywell Street above.

2 Park Place: William Price (35), a boot closer, lived here with his wife Mary (32), who was a laundress, and their daughter Sylvia (10 months). Also living with them were his niece Mary (21) and widowed mother Mary Baker (77), both of whom were also laundresses.

3 Park Place: Henry Osborne (43), a painter, lived here with his wife Sarah (39), who was a laundress, and their children Sarah (13), Jane (11), Martha (8), Henry (6), and Harriet (4).

4 Park Place Ann Hutton (51), a widowed laundress, lived here with her servant.

5 Park Place: Susannah Pool (51), a widowed laundress, lived here with her daughter Susannah (14). In the same house was Benjamin Whitlock (47), who was a coachman, his wife Rebecca (45), and his nephew William Wellington (4).

6 Park Place: William Gawthorn (57), a widowed tailor, lived here with his daughter Emily (16) and his unmarried sister-in-law Mary Hounslow (57), who was a schoolmistress.

7 Park Place: Thomas Kench (50), a gardener’s labourer, lived here with his wife Susan (50) and their children Jane (18), George (15), Edward (11), and Helen (9). There were two other households in this dwelling: James Blay (30), an unmarried college servant, and his sister Elizabeth (34), a cook; and Henry Cox (69), an annuitant.

8 Park Place: George Jones (38), a college servant at The Queen's College, lived here with his wife Ursula (43) and their children George (10), William (8), John (6), Charles (4), and Ellen (2), and their niece Martha Osborne (13).

1861

No. 1: Jane Burrows (45), a widowed mangler, lived here with her children Jane (12) and Joseph (9), her aunt Mary Hurley (a widow of 83) and two lodgers (a college servant and a house painter).

No. 2: Henry Osborne (53), a house painter, lived here with his wife Sarah (49) and daughters Sarah (22) and Martha (18), all of whom were laundresses; his son Henry 16, who was a printer compositor; his three younger children Harriet (14), William (9), and Eliza (6), who were all at school; and his granddaughter Emma Osborne (1).

No. 3: Ann Fletcher(63), a widowed laundress, lived here with her servant Martha Hunt (31).

No. 4: Susannah Poole (a widow of 60) lived here with her daughter Susan (24): both were laundresses.

No. 5: Jane Norton (40), a widowed seamstress, lived here with her son George (13), who was at school.

No. 6: John James (52), a servant, lived here with his wife Christina (42) and his children Thomas (17), who was a printer compositor, and Amanda (13) and William (8), who were at school.

No. 7: George Jones (48), a college servant, lived here with his wife Ursula (53) and his children George (19), who was a servant; William (17), who was a printer compositor; John (15), who was a servant; and Ursula (11), who was at school.

1871

No. 1: Miss Martha Hunt (49), a laundress, lived here with two lodgers.

No. 2: Miss Mary Ann Reynolds (73), a retired domestic servant, lived here on her own.

No. 3: Mrs Mary Ann Farran (39) lived here with her children Robert (6), Mary (3), and Emily (1).

Nos 4 and 5 may have been numbered the wrong way around in either 1861 or 1871,
unless Mrs Norton and Mrs Poole swapped houses

No. 4: Mrs Jane Norton (50), a widowed and now a servant at the Museum, still lived here with her son Harry (18), who was a grocer's apprentice, and a lodger

No. 5: Mrs Susannah Poole (70), still worked here as a laundress and had a lodger.

No. 6: George Buckell (32), a college servant, lived here with his wife Maria (32) and their son Edwin (2), plus four young lodgers.

No. 7: Thomas James (27), a printer and compositor, lived here with his wife Marianne (28) and their children John (5), Walter (3), and David (1), plus their lodger. (Thomas lived with his parents at No. 6 ten years earlier, so it is possible that another pair of houses were listed the wrong way around.)

No. 8: Sarah Osborne (59) lived here with her daughter Sarah Carter (22) (both widowed laundresses) and other her children Henry (21), who was a printer, William (19), who was a tailor, and Elizabeth (16), who was a dressmaker, plus her grandchildren Sarah Carter (4) and Martha Soane (3). They had one servant.

1881

No. 1: Anthony Woods (31), a cabman, lived here with his wife Kate (21).

No. 2: James Farrant (62), a gardener, lived here with his wife Lucy (60).

No. 3: George W. Wernham (46), a college bedmaker, lived here with his wife Esther and his children Ada (17), who was a governess, Alice (14), and Rosa (7). They had a butler lodging with them.

No. 4: Ann Day (69), a lodging house keeper, lived here with three lodgers: a college bedmaker and his wife, and a 68-year-old widow.

No. 5: Christina James (68) still lived here, and was now a widow and described a lodging house keeper. Her lodgers were a city missionary and a grocer’s assistant.

No. 6: George Greening (42), a coachman, lived here with his wife Emma (44) and his children William (15), who was a groom, George (12), Ellen (10), Alfred (7), and Evelyn (4).

No. 7: Jane Cater (58), a widowed dressmaker, lived here with three lodgers: a retired publican, a tailor, and a hairdresser’s assistant.

1891

No. 1: Thomas Allsop (51), a widower and butler, lived here with his daughter Catherine (26), who was a domestic nurse, Thomas (22), who was a college servant, and Ethel (14).
Lodging in two rooms in the house were the widows Charlotte Butler (79) and Elizabeth Calcott (53), and Dorothy Calcott (14), a dressmaker.

No. 2: James A. Farrant (73), Parish Clerk and Sexton, lived here with his daughter Grace (31), who acted as his housekeeper, and a boarder.

No. 3: Edward Hines (43), a builder, lived here with his wife Maria (46) and their children Edward (15), Horace (12), Norman (11), Gladys (9), Nora (6), Rhoda (3), and George (1).

No. 4: Henry Chamberlain (45), a general labourer, lived here with his wife Annie (40), who was a laundress, and their children Florence (9), Beatrice (7), Harry (5), Annie (3), and Emily (1). They also had an elderly lodger listed as an afterthought later on in the census.

No. 5: William Cambray (33), a painter, lived here with his wife Charlotte (27) and their children Emily (5), William (4), Lottie (2), and Annie (three months), and William's half-sister Fanny Dorsett (11).

No. 6: Recorded as having already been pulled down.

No. 7: Harry Turner (39), a journeyman tailor, lived here with his wife Sarah (42) and their children Harry (14), who was an errand boy, Rosina (12), Arthur (10), William (6), Frederic (4), Mary (2), and Gertrude (two months).

Park Place was obliterated shortly after this census to make way for Mansfield Road


No. 23
1841

The 1841 census for Holywell does not give house numbers, but it is possible to deduce where people listed that year lived by examining directory entries between 1839 and 1842 and later censuses

John Simms (30), a shoe maker, lived here with Clara (30) and George (11), James (9), Elizabeth (8), Maria (6), Louisa (4), and Arthur (1). The family had one female servant.

John Prior (45), a college servant, appears also to have lived here with Esther (40) and Sarah (20), James (20), Esther (15), John (15), and George (14). They had two young servant girls, and probably a lodger.

1851

Joseph Merritt (31), an unmarried tailor occasionally employing another man, lived here with his sister Mary (18). There was a second household in the same dwelling: John Lovegrove (49), a college servant, and his wife Maria (39) and their son Charles (13),

1861

George Lively (32), a sawyer, lived here with his wife Ann and sons Thomas (3) and John (10 months). They had a tailoress as a lodger (listed at the end of the street).

1871

William Price (25), a boot closer, lived here with his wife Eliza (29), who was a college servant, and their children Elizabeth (16), who was an apprentice dressmaker, and Harry (12). They also had four lodgers.

1881

John Herbert (49), a cabinet maker employing two men, three apprentices, and one boy, lived here with his wife Mary (51) and his unmarried sister Elizabeth (56), who was a college servant.

1891

John Herbert (59), an upholsterer & cabinet maker, lived here with his wife Elizabeth (58) and his unmarried sister Elizabeth (66).

No. 23 was demolished soon after the 1891 census to make way for Mansfield Road


Brazier’s Yard
1841

The 1841 census for Holywell does not give house numbers, but it is possible to deduce where people listed that year lived by examining directory entries between 1839 and 1842 and later censuses

Sarah Such (70), “poor”.

Sarah Beesley (30), a laundress, with an independent lady of 55 and a child of 4.

Mary Yateman (70), “poor”.

George Hounslow (60), plasterer, with George (30), Philip (25) and William (25), all shoemakers.

Robert Burden (30), a servant, with Ann (30), Mary Ann (6), William (4), and Jane (1).
(Little Jane Burden was to become the famous Pre-Raphaelite Muse.)

1851

No. 1
William Thomas (73), a farm labourer, lived here with his wife Sarah (65), who was a washerwoman. They had a lodger aged 85 who was a mangle woman.

No. 2
Eliza Fletcher
(42), a widowed charwoman, lived here with her son Charles (14), who was a scholar.

No. 3
Martha Brewster
(35), a widowed needlewoman, lived here with her children William (12) and Martha (7).

No. 4
George Hounslow
(73), a widowed journeyman plasterer, lived here with his son Philip (39), an unmarried cordwainer, and his married son William (35), also a cordwainer, and William’s wife Caroline 930) and daughters Amelia (2) and Louisa (1).

1861

Richard Minchen (a widower of 48), a labourer, lived here alone.

William Parker (52), a carpenter of 52 lived here with his wife Elizabeth (5) and his children Tom (15), who was a shopboy and Selena (9), who was at school.

Joseph Coombs (58), a stableman, lived here with his wife Emma (70), who was a charwoman.

Jane Adams (66), a widow, lived here with her unmarried daughter Jane (30).

Sarah Newman (45), a widowed laundress, lived here with her children Frances (15), William (13), Thomas (10), George (8), Henry (6), Charles (4), Edward (3), and Robert (1).

1871

No. 1: John Gardner (59), a carpenter, lived here with his wife Rebecca (58) and their son Thomas (32), who was a painter.

No. 2: Elizabeth Parker (63), now a widowed laundress, lived here with her son Charles (25), who was a gardener.

No. 3: Thomas Jones (31), a groom, lived here with his wife Lucy (20). They had a lodger who lived in a separate part of the building.

1881

No. 1: There were three small households in this dwelling: (1) George Cox (87), a bell-founder; (2) Harriet Webb (63), a laundress; and (3) Joseph Coombs (80), an unemployed stableman, and his wife Emma (82).

No. 2: Samuel Barnett (68), a stonemason, lived here with his wife Sarah (75).

No. 3: Elizabeth Fortescue (33), a widowed charwoman, lived here with his daughters Fanny (8) and Grace (6).

No. 4: Isaac Richards (62), a footman, lived here with his wife Charlotte (60), a tailoress.

Brazier's Yard was obliterated shortly after the 1891 census to make way for Mansfield Road

Occupants of the houses at the former 22–23 Holywell Street listed in directories etc.

   B 
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Y
A
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 D 

Former No. 23 (left)

former No. 22 (right)

PARK PLACE

1772
Survey of Oxford

Frontage: 5 yds 0 ft 3 in
Mr Brooks

Frontage: 3 yds 1 ft 0 in
Mrs Jackson

Gateway: 
6 yds 0 ft 10 in
Mr Johnson

1839

John Simms
Boot & shoe maker

No listing

 

1841

William Pratley
Groom
(at No. 24 in 1852)

1846

Joseph Merrit
Tailor

1851

John Molineux
or Molyneaux
College servant

1861

Census: George Lively, sawyer
Directory: Daniel Page

1866–1876

John Herbert
General shop to 1876

John Herbert
Cabinet maker & upholsterer
from 1884

William Rivill Price
Boot closer

1881

1884–1887

C. Stapleton
Boot & shoe maker

Since 1891

Mansfield Road

The only person listed in Park Place in Hunt’s 1846 directory is T. Henneford Gilder, a carpenter.

Oxford Directory of 1871:

Park Place (between 21 and 22)
2. Mrs Osborne
3. George Farrant
4. Miss Hunt
     William Ellard
5. Mrs Poole
6. Mrs Norton
7. Mrs James
8. George E. Buckett

Brazier’s Yard (between 23 and 24)
1. Mrs Parker
2. Mrs Jones
3. John Gardener

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© Stephanie Jenkins

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