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Oxford Mileways Act 1771: Killing of cattle etc after Market set up


The following part of the Act relates to the rules about killing cattle in the street and other nuisances, and hanging up signs


No Cattle to be killed in the Streets

And be it further enacted, That if any Person or Persons shall kill, slaughter, singe, scale, dress, or cut up, any beast, Swine, Calf, Sheep, or other Cattle, or cause the same to be done, in any open or public Street, Lane, or Way, within the said University and City of Oxford, or the Suburbs thereof, or in the said Parish of Saint Clement, or hang up, or cause to be hung up, any Beast, Swine, Calf, Sheep, or other Cattle, or any Part or Parts thereof, in any of the said Streets or publick Passages, from and after the Market herein after-mentioned shall be completed, every Person or Persons so offending shall, for every such Offence, forfeit and pay the Sum of Ten shillings; and if any Swine, Beast, or Cattle, shall be found wandering about the said Streets, Lanes, or Ways, or any or either of them, it shall and may be lawful to and for any Officer or Officers of the said Commissioners, or any other Person or Persons whomsoever, to impound such Swine, Beast, or Cattle, in either of the common Pounds in the said City, or Suburbs, or Saint Clement’s aforesaid, or such other Place as shall be appointed for that Purpose by the said Commissioners, or any Five or more of them, and the same to detain in the said Pound or Place, until the Sum of Five Shillings and the Expence of impounding such Swine, Beast, or Cattle, shall be fully paid and satisfied; and in case such Penalty and Expences shall not be paid within Three Days after such Swine, Beast, or Cattle, shall be impounded, it shall and may be lawful for such Person or Persons as shall be appointed by the said Commissioners, or any Five or more of them, for that Purpose, to sell, or cause such Swine, Beast, or Cattle, to be sold; and the Money arising from the Sale thereof, shall be applied to such and the same Purposes as the Money arising from the Rates or Assessments is hereby directed to be applied.

To prevent certain Nuisances in the Streets

And be it further enacted, That if any Person or Persons shall hoop, cleanse, wash, or scale, any Cask; or hew or saw, or cause to be hewed or sawed, any Stone, Wood, or Timber; or bind, make, or repair, any Wheel; or Shoe, bleed, cleanse, or dress, or turn or drive loose any Horse; or wet, slack, or mix, any Lime; or wet, mix, or make any Mortar, except as herein before mentioned; or throw at any Cock or Fowl, in the Manner called Cock-throwing, or set up any Cock or Fowl to be thrown at in such Manner; or shall make, or assist in the making, any Fire or Fires, commonly called Bonefires; or shall set Fire to, or let off, or throw any Squib, Serpent, Rocket, or Fireworks whatsoever, in any of the Highways, Streets, Lanes, or public Ways within the said University, City, or Suburbs, or in the said Parish of Saint Clement; or shall set, place, or expose to Sale, or cause, permit, or suffer to be set, placed, or exposed to Sale, any Goods, Chattels, Wares, or Merchandises whatsoever, on the Foot or Carriage-way or any Highway, Street, Lane, or publick Way, in the said University and City, or Suburbs, or in the said Parish of Saint Clement, except the selling of Butter and Corn in the Markets, as usual, on Market Days; or hang up, or expose any Goods, Wares, or Merchandises, or any other Matter or Thing, upon any Flap Window. or otherwise, so as to obstruct or incommode the Passage of the Foot or Carriage-way of any Street, Lane, or public Way, in the said University, City, or Suburbs, or the said Parish of Saint Clement, every Person, so offending in either of the said Cases, shall, for every such Offence, forfeit and pay the Sum of Ten Shillings; over and above such Penalties as are inflicted on any or either of the said Offences, by any Law or Statute now in being.

Signs, &c to be taken down

And be in further enacted by the Authority Aforesaid, That the said Commissioners, or any Nine or more of them, shall and may, at any Time after the passing of this Act, cause Notice to be given to the respective Owners or Occupiers of the several Houses, Buildings, Yards, Gardens, Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments, in the said University and City of Oxford, and the Suburbs thereof, and in the said Parish of Saint Clement, to take down, fill up, remove, alter, or regulate, all Signs, or other Emblems used to denote the Trade, Occupation, or Calling of any Person or Persons, Sign-posts, Sign-irons, Pent-houses, Shew-boards, Spouts, Gutters, Stalls, Bulks, Bulk or Bow Windows, Window-shutters, Porches, Sheds, Butchers Gallows, Pumps, Shambles, Blocks, or Pieces of Timber, Chopping-blocks, Cellar-windows, Dwarf-walls, Pits, Saw-pits, Trees, and Posts, projecting into, or standing or being in any of the said Streets, Lanes, or Public Ways, or in or upon the Waste, or other Ground, lying between the Houses near or adjoining to such Streets or Highways, and all other Encroachments, Nuisances, or Annoyances whatsoever, within the said University and City, or the Suburbs thereof, and the said Parish of Saint Clement, projecting into, or standing or being in the said Streets, Lanes, or Public Ways, or in or upon the Waste or other Ground between the houses near or adjoining to such Streets or Highways, in such Manner as they shall think proper; and to cause all Signs, or other Emblems as aforesaid, Shew-boards, Spouts, and Gutters, or such Parts thereof as they shall think fit, to be carried away, or affixed and placed on the Fronts of the Houses, Shops, Warehouses, or Buildings, whereunto they respectively belong, or were before affixed, and not otherwise: And in case the respective Owner or Occupiers shall refuse or neglect so to do, for the Space of Twenty Days next after such Notice shall be given to him or them respectively (which Notice shall be given in Writing under the hand of the Clerk to the said Commissioners for the Time being, and delivered or left at the Dwelling-house or usual Place of Abode of such Owner or Occupier) it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Commissioners, or any Nine or more of them, to cause such Signs, Emblems, Sign-posts, Sign-irons, Pent-houses, Shew-boards, Spouts, Gutters, Stalls, Bulks, Bulk or Bow Windows, Window-shutters, Porches, Sheds, Butchers Gallows, Pumps, Shambles, Blocks, or Pieces of Timber, Chopping-blocks, Cellar-windows, Dwarf-walls, Pits, Saw-pits, Trees, and Posts, and all other Encroachments, Nuisances or Annoyances whatsoever, to be taken down, carried away, filled, removed, altered, and regulated, in such Manner as they shall think proper; and shall cause all such Signs, or other Emblems as aforenamed, Shew-boards, Spouts and Gutters, or such Parts thereof as they shall think fit, to be removed and carried away, or affixed and placed on the Fronts of the Houses, Shops, Warehouses, or Buildings, whereunto they respectively belong, or were before affixed, and not otherwise; and shall return, or cause to be returned, to their respective Owners, or to be left on the Spot, or as near as conveniently may be for such Owner or Owners, so much of such signs or other Emblems, Sign-posts or other Posts, Sign-irons, Pent-houses, Shew-boards, Spouts, Gutters, Stalls, Bulks, Bulk or Bow Windows, Window-shutters, Porches, Sheds, Butchers Gallows, Pumps, Shambles, Blocks, Chopping-blocks, Cellar-windows, dwarf Walls, Trees, and Posts, or other Encroachments, Nuisances, or Annoyances whatsoever, as shall not be affixed or put up, or otherwise made use of in the Alterations directed by this Act, and the Charges and Expences attending the same, shall and may be recovered of the Owners or Occupiers thereof respectively, in the same Manner as the Charges and Expences of cleansing and lighting the said Streets are directed to be recovered under this Act: And if any Person or Persons shall, at any Time or Times thereafter, hang, place, erect, build, or make, any Sign, Sign-post or other Post, Sign-iron, Pent-house, Shew-board, Spout, Gutter, Stall, Bulk, Bulk or Bow Window, Window-shutter, Porch, Shed, Butchers Gallows, Pound for Cattle, Pump, Cellar-window, or dwarf Wall, Shamble, Block, or Piece of Timber, Chopping-block, Pit, Saw-pit, Post, or other Encroachment, Nuisance, or Annoyance whatsoever, or cause the same to be done contrary to the Directions aforesaid; every Person so offending shall, for every such Offence, forfeit and pay the Sum of Forty Shillings, and the further Sum of Ten Shillings for ever Day such Offence shall continue; and the Master Workmen employed to erect, build, do, or perform the same, shall forfeit and pay the Sum of Forty Shillings: And it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Commissioners, or any Five or more of them, to order the same to be taken down, removed, carried away, altered, or regulated, in such Manner as they, or any Five or more of them, shall think proper; and the Person or Persons so ordered shall and may take down, remove, carry away, alter, or regulate the same accordingly, without any Notice or Warning to be given to the Owner or Owners, Tenant or Occupier, to take down, remove, carry away, alter, or regulate the same.


Selling of meat prior to the Oxford Mileways Act and the erecting of the Covered Market

The shops in Butcher Row (Queen Street) had been burnt down in the fire of 1644 and not rebuilt until 1657, and during this period butchers had of necessity been selling their produce from shops and stalls in the High Street.

At a meeting of Oxford City Council held on 7 April 1657 it was clarified that henceforth meat could only be sold at the west end of the High Street on market days (Wednesdays and Saturdays), and that on all other days it had to be sold in Butcher Row (Queen Street):

At this Councell it is Agreed that whereas the Ancient Custome and usage of this Cyttie of Oxford hath beene That the Butchers within the said Cyttie have beene permitted only to keepe their Shoppes and Stalls for the sale of Butchers-meat in the High Street of the said Cyttie Leading from Carfax to St. Maryes Church upon Wednesdays and Saturdayes, being Market Dayes, within the said Cyttie, And that upon other Weeke dayes they have been accustomed and ought only to keepe their Shoppes and sell their meat in the Shoppes built for that purpose in the place called the old Butcherow, which of late haveing been consumed by ffire hath at the great charges of the said Cittie beene built and reedified; And whereas by dayly Experience it is found very prejudiciall to the health and habitations of the Inhabitants within the said Cittie and Universitie, And to bee a great Annojance to all people that resort to the same That the Butchers should keepe their Shoppes and Stalls in the High Street at other tymes then as aforesaid; And whereas the Regulateing and ordering of yet Butchers in the keepeing of their Shopps and Stalls within the said Cittie hath of Ancient times belonged to this house, And whereas much disorder and disaagreement may happen among the Butchers who ought to keepe their Shoppes in the said Butcherow as aforesaid, And it might prove a great wrong, prejudice, and oppression to diverse of them who keepe their shopps there, if any particular person or persons should set up any stall or keepe any Shoppe in any other parte of the Cyttie then in the said Butcherow and there sell meate in any day or dayes of the weeke except Wednesdayes or Satterdayes, as aforesaid, especially if such shoppe or stall should be kept betweene the said Butcherow and Carfax, whereby the said Butcherow would be in a manner forestalled.

 

Stephanie Jenkins, 2013