Burial grounds: churchyards and cemeteries
A committee reported in 1843 that every churchyard in the City of Oxford was full. (Oxford at this time did not include the present-day suburbs of Summertown, Cowley and Headington, while Botley and the south part of the Abingdon Road were not even in the same county.)
There were at this time the following fifteen churches within the boundary of the City of Oxford:
All Saints, High Street
St Mary the Virgin
Thirteen of these were the ancient parish churches of the city, and their churchyards were all in a critical state. The other two churches in the city had no problem: St Clement's Church (covering an area that had been taken into the city only seven years before in 1835), had a new church, built in 1826, which had a large and expandable churchyard; and St Paul’s Church, built in 1836, was a district chapel and therefore had no parish and no need of a churchyard.
The need for new burial grounds became more and more urgent, but the clergy opposed the opening of a general cemetery open to all creeds, and so Oxford had to wait nearly fifty years for its first municipal cemetery.
Three new parish cemeteries were consecrated in 1848 for the thirteen ancient parishes:
- Osney Cemetery (Wikipedia) for the four ancient parishes of St Aldate, St Ebbe, St Peter-le-Bailey,
and St Thomas
- Holywell (or Holy Cross) Cemetery (Wikipedia) for the six ancient parishes of All Saints,
St Cross (Holywell), St John the Baptist, St Martin, St Mary the Virgin, and St Peter-in-the-East
- St Sepulchre’s Cemetery in Jericho for the three ancient parishes of St Giles, St Mary Magdalen,
and St Michael-at-the-Northgate. This included an area for the district chapelry of St Paul which included parts
of the parishes of St Thomas, St Giles, and St Mary Magdalen
Orders in council instructed that burials should cease in
- all the ancient parish churchyards listed above (except in existing vaults or walled graves)
- the graveyards of the Roman Catholic, Baptist, Wesleyan, and Congregational chapels
- the workhouse
- the Radcliffe Infirmary
- the castle gaol.
In addition, burials in Holywell, St Sepulchre and Osney cemeteries (all of which had only opened seven years earlier), as well as in Summertown churchyard which was just outside the city, were only to take place in plots already reserved.
The Cemetery Committee of the Local Board reported that the above orders of 1855 could not be complied with, and that St Thomas’s and St Clement’s churchyards were still being used occasionally. As a result the Local Board was constituted a Burial Board, and negotiations started to purchase land from Christ Church at Rose Hill.
St Mary & St John churchyard was consecrated in 1878, and this would have eased the problem slightly in east Oxford
An article in the New York Times of 8 May 1887 stated that the “disgraceful state of St Sepulchre's Cemetery”, where bones of people buried thirty or fewer years before were lying around on the surface of newer graves, was “the latest scandal at Oxford”.
In 1889 and 1890 the new Oxford Corporation bought land for three new municipal cemeteries outside the city, and they were all dedicated in 1894 under the Interments Act:
- Rose Hill Cemetery (11 acres). This contains 16,700 burials, and has been full for some years.
- Wolvercote Cemetery at Cutteslowe (13 acres). This is the largest cemetery in the county: about 16,700 people are buried there, and was expected to be full by 2015.
- Botley Cemetery (8 acres). This is in the area covered by the Vale of the White Horse District Council, and includes nearly 800 Commonwealth War Graves.
When Headington was taken into Oxford in 1929, Headington Cemetery, which had opened in 1885 and had hitherto been run by Headington Parish Council, became a public burial ground for the whole city.
Oxford Crematorium opened in Bayswater Lane in Stanton St John (now called Bayswater Road and part of Headington)
Oxford City Cemeteries Service
This covers the four municipal cemeteries (Botley, Headington,Rose Hill, and Wolvercote)